What is the Seasoning of Timber?
Definition: The process by which removal of excess moisture content from the timber at a suitable level in conjunction with improving some qualities are known as seasoning of timber
Timber is wood that’s used for building houses and making furniture. Basically, timbers are used for structural purposes. Those woods which are adapted for building purpose are timber.
When the trees are cut down, it will be having approximately 50% of moisture content. Timber cannot be used immediately after the cutting of trees because of the tree contains an uneven sap. If the excess moisture is present within the timber will shrink excessively. It will even have a tendency to decay So, there is the only seasoning of timber is one of the solutions.
The 100% amount of the moisture can’t be removed from the Tree. 12-15℅ of moisture remains within the tree after seasoning. Carpentry tools can easily be used on the well-seasoned timber. Well-seasoning of timber may contain up to 15%
What are the Reasons for Seasoning of the Timber
- To improve the strength and workability of the Timber
- It helps to reduce the probabilities of development of shrinkage defect and to form sure durability of timber
- To reduce the moisture content from the Timber
- It Improves the properties of Wood.
- To reduce the load and crack of timber
- It makes the timber receptive to finish like preservative, paint, and varnish
Methods of Seasoning of Timber
There are Two Methods of Seasoning of Timber
- Natural Seasoning
- Artificial Seasoning
1. Natural Seasoning
The seasoning of timber using natural elements like water, the air is known as NATURAL SEASONING The natural seasoning could even be water seasoning or air seasoning
In Water Seasoning method, timer kept immersed in ponds or running stream for a 3 to 4 weeks. Maximum sap is washed out from timber by this method. A timber is entirely kept underwater by Chaining them properly. After this process, these timber logs are kept under the shed for open free air circulation.
In this method, timber has to be stacked for drying until it’s moisture content reduces to 15 percent. In this method, water or moisture is driven out from the timber by a very slow process of evaporation. Depending upon the climate, the moisture content of wood is often delivered to about 10 -20℅.
2. Artificial Seasoning
Artificial Seasoning is the process by which timber is dried using a human-made machine named as a kiln. By this method seasoning of timber is done within 4-5 days
Here is the list of Different methods of artificial seasoning.
- Seasoning by Boiling
- Kiln seasoning
- Chemical seasoning
- Electrical seasoning
1. Seasoning by Boiling
Seasoning of Timber is also done by boiling it in water for 3-4 hours. After this process timber is allowed to cool and dry. For a large quantity of timber, the boiling process is very difficult so, for which hot steam is passed through the logs of timber in an enclosed room. A seasoning by boiling process provides good elasticity and strength to Timber. This process is economically very costly.
2. Kiln Seasoning
The kiln is an airtight chamber. Timber to be seasoned is placed inside it. Then_ fully saturated air with a temperature 35°C to 38°C is forced in the kiln. The heat gradually reaches inside timber.
Then relative humidity is gradually reduced and the temperature is increased and maintained till the desired degree of moisture content is achieved.
The kiln used could even be stationary or progressive. In the progressive kiln the carriages carrying timber travel from one end of the kiln to another end gradually.
The recent air is supplied from the discharging end so that temperature increase is gradual from charging end to discharging end. This method is used for seasoning on a much bigger scale.
3. Chemical Seasoning
In this process of seasoning, timber is stored in a suitable chemical solution of salt for Some time. A salt solution is used to absorb water from the timber. Therefore, the moisture content is removed from the timber, and timber is allowed to dry. This process affects the strength of the timber.
4. Electrical Seasoning
A Dry timber is a non conductor of electricity, where green or moisturized timber is conductor of electricity so, In this method alternative current is used for drying moisture from the timber by creating heat.
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