What is Waste?
Waste is defined as, any unwanted or unusable substance that is discarded after primary use. They are generated from human and animal activities urbanization and rapid advancement in industrialization. The Waste generated from industries also knows as Industrial Waste. Which has led to an increase in the production and consumption forces resulting in the generation of waste?
Classification of wastes
Waste can be classified into three parts
- Solid waste
- Liquid waste
- Gaseous waste
- Solid waste: Solid waste can be in the form of solid or semisolid. i.e waste tyres, scrap metal, latest pants, furniture etc.
- Liquid waste: Liquid wastes are waste which in the form of liquid. It is also called as sewage i.e they are generated from domestic washing, chemical oils, and hazardous household liquid etc.
- Gaseous waste: gaseous wastes are waste which is generated in the form of gas. That is carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide ozone and methane etc.
Classification of solid waste
solid waste is classified into three categories
- Source-based: -source-based is municipal solid waste (MSW), industrial waste, commercial waste, biomedical waste, agricultural waste.
- Type-based: Based on the type. They are categorized into, the garbage, rubbish, bulk waste, Street waste, dead animal, construction and demolition waste, sewage waste, mining wastes, radioactive waste
- Property-based:-based on property waste are biodegradable, organic waste, non-biodegradable inorganic waste, hazardous waste, and non- hazardous waste
What is Industrial Waste?
Industrial waste is known as garbage generated by the Manufacturing industries. In the world of chemical plants, paint industry, cement factories, metallurgical plants, thermal power plants, petroleum, coal, gas, sanitary, textile, food processing, and paper industry are referred to as industrial waste.
Some of the examples of industrial waste. That is Solid waste, Airwaste, Water waste. If you talk about India there are thousands of manufacturing industrial companies. Their generated industrial waste causes water pollution, Air pollution, land pollution, waste affects our environment badly. There are industry uses raw materials for the production of Consumer goods. But in the process of manufacturing, some materials are useless. The Formation of industrial waste.
Some examples of industrial wastes are paints,, sandpaper, slag, plasy, radioactive wastes, etc.
Manufacturer industrial always produce inorganic and organic waste. Which are directly deposit in water bodies, they cause serious water pollution or affect the health of aquatic animals.
Industrial waste categories into two categories are known as biodegradable waste, non-biodegradable waste,
Different types of industrial waste Bio-Degradable or organic waste
Bio-Degradable is those industrial waste. Which can be decomposed into non-toxic substances by the action of some microorganisms. Which are biodegradable wastes or decomposed by the natural process. Such as composting aerobic/ anaerobic digestion
They include green waste, food waste, paper waste, biodegradable plastics, human and animal waste, sewage sludge, slaughterhouse waste, etc
Non biodegradable waste is also known as inorganic waste what does that cannot be decomposed and remain as such in the environment indefinitely
- plastic, nuclear waste, glass, rubber tyres, sitrofoam, fibre glass and metals.
Based on physicochemical properties
Waste are classified into hazardous and non hazardous waste.
- Hazardous:- hazardous waste is defined as chemical material that can no longer be used for its intended purpose and is known as to be harmful or potentially harmful two plants animal and human health or environment
Hazardous waste material maybe toxic, reactive, igni table, explosive, corrosive, infectious or radioactive.
- Non- Hazardous waste :– non hazardous waste are defined as substances safe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally or economically
Treatment of industrial waste Water
Industrial water treatment of pollution can be classified into following categories
- Boiled water treatment :- Here water is boiled in a steel boiler and generated steam is used for industrial purpose like power generation, through this process lots of physical chemical and microbial impurities can be removed.
- Steam boiler suffer from scale, it may lead to weak and dangerous machinery scale deposit mean additional fuel is required to heat the same level of water because of the drop in efficiency.
- poor quality dirty water can become a breeding ground for bacteria such as legionella causing a risk two public health
- Cooling water treatment :- the process removes waste, process heat and transferred to atmosphere this process used cooling towers to cool heated fluids
- Without effective water treatment a cooling water system can suffer from scale formation corrosion and fooling and may become a breeding ground for harmful bacteria such as those that cause Legionnaires Disease.
3. Wastewater Treatment or Sewage Treatment
- Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage both run-off and domestic
- it includes a physical-chemical and biological process to remove physical-chemical and biological contaminants .its objective is to produce an environmentally safe flutes
waste stream and is solid waste or treated sludge suitable for disposal or reuse (casually as fertilizer) using advanced technology it is now possible to reuse savage effluent for drinking water
Effects of different metals used in industry
Mercury:- waste from alkyl chloride industry is the main source of Mercury contamination with water mercury is dangerously poisonous for our buddy and it damages the nervous system or kidney
Arsenic:- Excessive withdrawal of groundwater increase the concentration of arsenic in the rest part of water, it causes a serious type of incurable skin disease leading to death
How industrial waste affects the environment
Recent industrial development has led to substantial support in the economy of many nations
But as is the case in many countries, we all are facing its life treating after effect. an example is the United State where industry contributes to more than half of the total water pollution.
- one of the major cause of industrial water pollution is the careless industry honors to have absolutely no regard for rules and no sense of responsibility towards the environment
- the Water used in the various industrial process come in contact with toxic chemical-heavy metals organs sludge and even radioactive sludge
- when such polluted water is thrown into the ocean or other water bodies without any treatment it leads to a number of very serious for problem thermal pollution being one of them.
- Thermal pollution refers to an increase in the ambient water temperature that can have an adverse effect on the sensitive aquatic life
- Radioactive sludge from industry waste from the power plants and nuclear reactors can cow thermal pollution which related to the water bodies.
- when industrial run-off end UP in water bodies the nutrient content of water increase leading to eutrophication and algal blooms
- During daytime these algal blooms produce oxygen but at night they used oxygen dissolves in water, bleaching the water body of its oxygen over time.
- Another effect of the industrial problems is an increase in the murkiness of water this can prevent sunlight from reaching the bottom-dwelling plants making them unable to photosynthesize.
- Excessive murkiness of water can also block the gills of fish making it difficult for them to take dissolved oxygen from the surrounding water.
- Presence of a high level of carbon tetrachloride in drinking water can cause liver problem
- Toluene is basically a pollutant generated by the oil and petroleum industry. Which too can affect the liver, kidney and central nervous system
Preventive measures for controlling industrial waste.
- Industries can install a pre-treatment system to separately treat waste like heavy metals, volatile organic compound and oil, and grease
- The government needs to come up with affordable pollution control equipment, and incentives for installing the equipment
- Thermal pollution can be controlled by forming cooling ponds or by using cooling towers
- local municipal authorities can be urged to use the latest technology to recycle or treat domestic waste
- It is important to spread awareness and do our bit towards curbing industrial water pollution
- The public has to be aware of the methods of controlling industrial waste disposal. That will let us be more involved in the conservation and preservation of the environment
- There are three important efforts of an individual in waste management
- Reduce:- cutting back on the amount of trash waste material
- Reuse:- finding a new way to use trash waste material
- Recycle:- using trash (waste material) to remix new goods that can be solid again.
These are some preventive measure step for controlling industrial waste